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西尾の地域情報サイト「まいぷれ」西尾市

西尾市岩瀬文庫の世界

道成寺絵巻物 [江戸時代中期写 酒井家旧蔵『日高川草紙(道成寺絵)』の模写本]

異説の『道成寺絵巻物』の江戸時代の写本

 安珍と清姫の物語として歌舞伎や浄瑠璃などでもおなじみの『道成寺』。しかしこの物語に別バージョンのお話があるのをご存知でしょうか。『賢学草紙』『日高川草紙』などとも称されるこの異説の『道成寺絵巻物』の江戸時代の写本が、岩瀬文庫に所蔵されています。
 遠州橋本の長者に、美しい姫君がいました。16歳になった姫が、京の清水寺へ参詣した折、そこに行き合わせた三井寺の若く美しい修行僧、賢学が姫を見初めます。賢学は「たとえ水の底までも、あなたと添い遂げたい」という情熱的な恋文を姫に送り、姫はその思いに応え、二人は契りを結びます。
 ところが、姫の胸にある刀傷を見て、賢学はぎょっとします。訳を聞くと、姫は5歳のときに何者かに刺され、危うく一命を取り留めたのだと言うではありませんか。実は賢学は11年前、将来自分と結ばれる運命にある娘がいるというお告げを受け、娘が修行の妨げになることを恐れ、ひそかにその娘を刺して逃げたのでした。さてはこの姫君があの時の娘だったのかと、因縁の深さにぞっとした賢学は、いきなりの冷たい態度に困惑し、泣きすがる姫を残し、そそくさと立ち去りました。
 賢学の後を慕って来た姫を岸に取り残し、賢学は日高川を船で渡ります。遠ざかる賢学を追い、思い余って川に身を躍らせる姫君。すると、なんということでしょう。姫は蛇に姿を変え、船にせまって来るではありませんか。驚愕する船頭、怯えて仏に祈る賢学。
 叫びながら必死で逃げまどう賢学は、古寺に駆け込み、降ろしてあった鐘の中に隠れました。賢学が隠れた鐘に巻きつき、大蛇となった姫は微笑を浮かべてこう言います。「あらあらうれしや、このまま奈落の底に入(いり)て出(いづ)る事あるまじ。離るる事あるまじや、あるまじや」。賢学と一緒ならば、地獄の底へ落ちて永遠に出られなくなっても嬉しい、というのです。
 そして鐘をぎりぎりと締め上げて砕くと、中の賢学をつかんでもろともに日高川の水底に沈んでいったのでした。

賢学は、泣きすがる姫を残し、そそくさと立ち去る

Dojo Temple Picture Scroll
Mid Edo era
Copy of “Hidaka River” (Dojo Temple Picture Scroll) from the Sakai storehouse

 The story of Anchin and princess Kiyo at Dojo Temple is famous throughout kabuki and ballad dramas. However, you might not know that this story has another version. Iwase Bunko Library has an Edo era copy of “Dojo Temple Picture Scroll” which is a different view of the Japanese bound books “Kengaku” and “Hidaka River”.
 In Enshu, Hashimoto, there was a beautiful princess who was daughter to a wealthy man. At the age of 16, the princess paid a visit to Kiyomizu Temple in Kyoto, where Kengaku, a young, handsome disciple in training from Mii Temple, fell in love at the first sight of her. Kengaku sends the princess a passionate love letter stating, “Even if it is at the bottom of the ocean, I want to remain with you in death!” and with that in her mind, they consummate their relationship.
 At that time, Kengaku is shocked to see a sword wound in her chest. When he asked her the reason for it she replied that she was stabbed at the age of five and should have died. In fact, eleven years earlier, Kengaku had heard a prophecy that his destiny lied with a girl; he feared that meant the girl would obstruct his future and so he had secretly stabbed her and escaped. Kengaku was chilled with the depths of fate that this was the girl of that time and suddenly his attitude became cold toward her. He hastily left her confused and crying.
 The princess followed Kengaku who left her at the bank of the Hidaka River and boarded a boat to cross. Without thinking, the princess headed into the river to follow Kengaku who was sailing away. No one can imagine what happens next. The princess transforms into a snake and approaches the boat. The boatman was astonished and Kengaku began to pray to Buddha.
 Screaming while fleeing desperately, Kengaku ran to an old temple and hid inside a large unfastened bell. The princess now an enormous snake, smiled while coiling herself around the bell in which Kengaku is hidden. “How wonderful, we shall travel to the very bottom of the inescapable depths for all eternity! Never to return, we’ll never be apart, ever.” This means she is happy to fall to the bottom of hell and never be able to return as long as she is with Kengaku.
 Then, with Kengaku still inside the bell, she tightly crushed it in her coils, ripped Kengaku from it and dragging him, the two of them drowned to the bottom of the Hidaka River.